In fact, many of these patients had a premature, artificial, chemo-induced menopause. Lactation unrelated to pregnancy is known as galactorrhea. How to lose fats on my breasts. Intersect your bra band size the number with the cup size you want to achieve. However, reports of actual chromium deficiency in humans are rare.
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Prima Donna Bra Review. Elomi Strapless Bra Review. Curvy Kate Strapless Bra Review. Wacoal Strapless Bra Review. They are sensitive to the touch as they have many nerve endings; and it is common to press or massage them with hands or orally before or during sexual activity.
During sexual arousal , breast size increases, venous patterns across the breasts become more visible, and nipples harden. Compared to other primates, human breasts are proportionately large throughout adult females' lives. Some writers have suggested that they may have evolved as a visual signal of sexual maturity and fertility.
Many people regard bare female breasts to be aesthetically pleasing or erotic , and they can elicit heightened sexual desires in men in many cultures. In the ancient Indian work the Kama Sutra , light scratching of the breasts with nails and biting with teeth are considered erotic. Research conducted at the Victoria University of Wellington showed that breasts are often the first thing men look at, and for a longer time than other body parts.
Some women report achieving an orgasm from nipple stimulation, but this is rare. In these cases, it seems that sensation from the nipples travels to the same part of the brain as sensations from the vagina, clitoris and cervix.
Nipple stimulation may trigger uterine contractions, which then produce a sensation in the genital area of the brain. There are many mountains named after the breast because they resemble it in appearance and so are objects of religious and ancestral veneration as a fertility symbol and of well-being.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Breast disambiguation. Morphology of human breasts with the areola , nipple , and inframammary fold. Mammary intercourse , Breast fetishism , and Stimulation of nipples. Retrieved 31 October Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 9 May Introduction to the Language Lessons". Archived from the original on 20 April Gray's anatomy for students.
Susan Love's Breast Book 6 ed. Retrieved 28 June Breast Reconstruction with Expanders and Implants: Artificial Organs 8 , pp. What every Woman Needs to Know". Introduction to the Human Body: Massachusetts Hospital for Children. Archived from the original on 25 August Retrieved 2 June Whether you have always worn a bra or always gone braless, age and breastfeeding will naturally fcause your breasts to sag.
Lay summary — LiveScience 2 November American Journal of Physical Anthropology. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. Annals of Plastic Surgery. Retrieved February 13, Retrieved 26 April Women, Cancer and History. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved 27 December Archived from the original on 14 April Retrieved 22 April Retrieved 23 March Naked activists defend right to abortion". Sexual Politics in Ancient Athens for a detailed study of male-dominant rule in ancient Greece.
Archived from the original on 8 March Retrieved 11 May Archived from the original on 28 March Archived from the original on 31 March Breast Feeding With Confidence.
Archived from the original on 5 January Encyclopaedia of Murder and Violent Crime. Re shaping American women. Archives of Sexual Behavior. International Academy of Sex Research. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Retrieved 12 August There are some females who appear to find no erotic satisfaction in having their breasts manipulated; perhaps half of them derive some distinct satisfaction, but not more than a very small percentage ever respond intensely enough to reach orgasm as a result of such stimulation Chapter 5.
The New Our Bodies, Ourselves: A Book by and for Women. A few women can even experience orgasm from breast stimulation alone. Cultural Encyclopedia of the Breast. The Psychology of Human Sexuality. The Journal of Sexual Medicine. Lay summary — CBSnews. Retrieved 23 September Medicine portal Sexuality portal. Anatomy of the breast. Breast disease N60—N64 , — There are reports of significant age-related decreases in the chromium concentrations of hair, sweat and blood [ 35 ], which might suggest that older people are more vulnerable to chromium depletion than younger adults [ 14 ].
One cannot be sure, however, as chromium status is difficult to determine [ 36 ]. That's because blood, urine, and hair levels do not necessarily reflect body stores [ 9 , 14 ]. Furthermore, no chromium-specific enzyme or other biochemical marker has been found to reliably assess a person's chromium status [ 9 , 37 ].
There is considerable interest in the possibility that supplemental chromium may help to treat impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes, but the research to date is inconclusive. No large, randomized, controlled clinical trials testing this hypothesis have been reported in the United States [ 14 ].
Nevertheless, this is an active area of research. Chromium has long been of interest for its possible connection to various health conditions. Among the most active areas of chromium research are its use in supplement form to treat diabetes, lower blood lipid levels, promote weight loss, and improve body composition.
In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is usually producing enough insulin but, for unknown reasons, the body cannot use the insulin effectively. The disease typically occurs, in part, because the cells comprising muscle and other tissues become resistant to insulin's action, especially among the obese. Insulin permits the entry of glucose into most cells, where this sugar is used for energy, stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen , and converted to fat when present in excess.
Insulin resistance leads to higher than normal levels of glucose in the blood hyperglycemia. Chromium deficiency impairs the body's ability to use glucose to meet its energy needs and raises insulin requirements. It has therefore been suggested that chromium supplements might help to control type 2 diabetes or the glucose and insulin responses in persons at high risk of developing the disease.
A review of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluated this hypothesis [ 38 ]. This meta-analysis assessed the effects of chromium supplements on three markers of diabetes in the blood: It summarized data from 15 trials on participants, of which were in good health or had impaired glucose tolerance and had type 2 diabetes.
Chromium supplementation had no effect on glucose or insulin concentrations in subjects without diabetes nor did it reduce these levels in subjects with diabetes, except in one study.
Overall, the value of chromium supplements for diabetes is inconclusive and controversial [ 39 ]. Randomized controlled clinical trials in well-defined, at-risk populations where dietary intakes are known are necessary to determine the effects of chromium on markers of diabetes [ 38 ]. The American Diabetes Association states that there is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of chromium to improve glycemic control in people with diabetes [ 40 ].
It further notes that there is no clear scientific evidence that vitamin and mineral supplementation benefits people with diabetes who do not have underlying nutritional deficiencies. The effects of chromium supplementation on blood lipid levels in humans are also inconclusive [ 1 , 8 , 41 ]. These findings are consistent with the results of earlier studies [ ]. However, chromium supplements have shown no favorable effects on blood lipids in other studies [ ]. The mixed research findings may be due to difficulties in determining the chromium status of subjects at the start of the trials and the researchers' failure to control for dietary factors that influence blood lipid levels [ ].
Chromium supplements are sometimes claimed to reduce body fat and increase lean muscle mass. Another recent review of randomized, controlled clinical trials did find supplements of chromium picolinate to help with weight loss when compared wtth placebos, but the differences were small and of debatable clinical relevance [ 55 ]. In several studies, chromium's effects on body weight and composition may be called into question because the researchers failed to adequately control for the participants' food intakes.
Furthermore, most studies included only a small number of subjects and were of short duration [ 39 ]. For additional information on chromium and body weight, see our health professional fact sheet on Weight Loss. Few serious adverse effects have been linked to high intakes of chromium, so the Institute of Medicine has not established a Tolerable Upper Intake Level UL for this mineral [ 10 , 14 ].
A UL is the maximum daily intake of a nutrient that is unlikely to cause adverse health effects. Certain medications may interact with chromium, especially when taken on a regular basis see Table 3. Before taking dietary supplements, check with your doctor or other qualified healthcare provider, especially if you take prescription or over-the-counter medications.
Chromium is a widely used supplement. Chromium is sold as a single-ingredient supplement as well as in combination formulas, particularly those marketed for weight loss and performance enhancement. Supplement doses typically range from 50 to mcg. The safety and efficacy of chromium supplements need more investigation. Please consult with a doctor or other trained healthcare professional before taking any dietary supplements.
Chromium supplements are available as chromium chloride, chromium nicotinate, chromium picolinate, high-chromium yeast, and chromium citrate. Chromium chloride in particular appears to have poor bioavailability [ 39 ]. However, given the limited data on chromium absorption in humans, it is not clear which forms are best to take. The federal government's Dietary Guidelines for Americans notes that "Nutritional needs should be met primarily from foods. Foods in nutrient-dense forms contain essential vitamins and minerals and also dietary fiber and other naturally occurring substances that may have positive health effects.
In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements may be useful in providing one or more nutrients that otherwise may be consumed in less-than-recommended amounts. For more information about building a healthy diet, refer to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the U. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate. This fact sheet by the Office of Dietary Supplements ODS provides information that should not take the place of medical advice.
We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc. Any mention in this publication of a specific product or service, or recommendation from an organization or professional society, does not represent an endorsement by ODS of that product, service, or expert advice. September 21, History of changes to this fact sheet.
Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements. Health Professional Other Resources. Chromium Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet. Table of Contents Chromium: What foods provide chromium? What are recommended intakes of chromium? What affects chromium levels in the body?
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